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Species:        Allium carolinianum DC.

Plant Profile:
The Allium carolinianum plant can be easily recognized because of its similarity to commonly grown cultivated onions. During the flowering stage, the plants have a distinct flowering spike bearing purple coloured flowers. It is an annual or perennial bulbous plant with a very dense globular umbel of pink flowers borne on stout stems usually 10-30 cm. It has long, flat, narrow leaves and relatively large, oblong-cylindrical bulbs covered with conspicuous leathery scales. It is found through out the alpine zone at an altitude range between 3000-4500 m. The plants are usually annual or perennial. The roots remain dormant inside the soil during winter and in the months of April-May, new shoots come up from the soil. After the vegetative phase is over, flowering takes place generally during the months of July-August and by end of October and mature seeds start dispersing with wind.  The flowering tops and leaves are used fresh and may be dried after harvesting for using it in later months.
Medicinal uses:
Parts used: Leaves and flowering tops
Active principles: The plant contains 0.1% maldorans, essential oil with organic sulphur compounds, allin, allicin, sativin (I and II), scordinina, scordine, anthocyanine, glycosides of kaempferol and querectionl. Vitamins like thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin have also found. 
Disease cured and dosage:
  • Ethnomedicinal:   It acts as a stimulant, diuretic, carminative and digestive. Amchis of Spiti used it in restlessness and insomnia.
  • Ethnoveterinary:   Data not sufficient
Therapeutic description:
  • Effect on humours:   Alleviates vata.
  • Nervous system:   It acts as a nervine stimulant in case of psychogenic depression. 
  • Digestive system:   It helps in settling flatulence and digestive upsets.
  • Urino-genital system:   It is also used to cure incontinence of urine (acts as a diuretic).
Drug preparation:   To convert the plant into a drug, the leaves and flowering tops are dried and then crushed in to powder.
  •   The powder must be stored in damp free containers.
  •   The shelf life of the powder is 6 months.

Family: Liliaceae
Common name: Janglee Piyaz, Ladam, Markua, Jambo-pharan
Local name: Pharan (Joshimath), Demokh (Ladakh), Lo-adh.Lapod, Lo-ath (Spiti),: Janglee Piyaz (Hindi)
Ayurvedic name:
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