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ECOLOGY
Title: The Ecology of the Himalayas
The Himalayas are home to a fascinating diversity of flora and fauna because of the wide spectrum of climate, rainfall, soil and altitude found here. A wide range of altitudes, various geological formations, climatic variations and rich floral and faunal diversity characterize the Himalayas. The species found in the region range from the elusive snow leopard in the snow-bound high altitude areas to the one-horned rhinoceros of the marshy foothills. The floral diversity is a fascinating mixture with prominent medicinal plants, gymnosperms like the cancer curing Taxus baccata, species of Rhododendron, Meconopsis, Gentiana, orchids and numerous species of wild grasses. This treasure of biodiversity and high degree of endemism has lead the region to be identified as a biodiversity hotspot. The spectacular biodiversity of the region can be gauged by the presence of a large number of endemic species – 3,160 plants, 12 mammals,...
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Title: Soil of the Himalayas
The soils found in the Himalayas are diverse in character depending upon altitude, vegetation cover, slope, structure and stage. The major soil groups in the Himalayas are brown hill soil, sub-mountain soils, mountain meadow soil and red loamy soils, apart from other less significant types. Most of the soils in this region are acidic in...
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Title: Flora
The Indian Himalayas are unique in the fact that they are home to a multitude of plant species, many of which are endemic to the region. They are a storehouse of the most rare and valuable species of medicinal plants, with approximately 1700 species being classified as high-value plants. Approximately five families, 71 genera and 3,160...
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Title: Fauna
Complimenting its diverse flora, the fauna of the Himalayas exhibits a magnificent variety. A high degree of endemism is found in this region, especially in the northeastern part. The Black Necked Crane, the musk deer, and the Kashmir stag, or hangul are some of the species on the brink of extinction. Due to the immense variations found...
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Title: Climate of the Himalayas
The Himalayas reflect great diversity in the climate types found here because of the great altitudinal variations present. They also act as a great climatic divide between the Indian subcontinent and the Central Asian highlands. The region sees two major seasons – summer and winter, with winters being very extreme at high...
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